Weapons

View previous topic View next topic Go down

Weapons

Post  .:A:.Death on Sat Jan 26, 2008 1:06 pm

You know something about weapons, post it here!
avatar
.:A:.Death
Administrator
Administrator

Male Number of posts : 73
Age : 22
Location : SRBIJA
Registration date : 2007-12-11

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

MP44, MP43 and StG44

Post  .:A:.Death on Sat Jan 26, 2008 1:18 pm

MP43, MP44, and StG44 were different designations for what was essentially the same rifle, with minor updates in production. The variety in nomenclatures resulted from complicated circumstances in Nazi Germany. Developed from the Mkb 42(H) "machine carbine", the 'StG44' combined traits of carbines, submachine guns and automatic rifles. StG is an abbreviation of Sturmgewehr. The name was chosen for propaganda reasons and literally means storm rifle as in "to storm a bunker." After the adoption of the StG44, the English translation "assault rifle" became the accepted designation for this type of infantry small arm.

The rifle was chambered for the 7.92x33mm Kurz cartridge, also known as 7.92 mm Kurz (German for "short"). This shorter version of the German standard (7.92x57mm Mauser) rifle round, in combination with the weapon's selective-fire design, provided a compromise between the controllable firepower of a submachine gun at close quarters with the accuracy and power of a Karabiner 98k bolt action rifle at intermediate ranges. While the StG44 had less range and power than the more powerful infantry rifles of the day, Wehrmacht studies had shown that most combat engagements occurred at less than 300 meters with the majority within 200 meters. Full-power rifle cartridges were overpowered for the vast majority of uses for the average soldier.

The StG44's receiver was made of heavy stamped and welded steel as were other contemporary arms such as the MP40 and MG42. This made for a fairly heavy rifle, especially one firing an intermediate-power cartridge. Difficulties with fabrication, the need to use available non-priority steels, and the exigencies of war resulted in a heavy receiver. U.S. military intelligence criticized the weight of the weapon along with the inclusion of the full automatic feature which it considered "ineffectual for all practical purposes." [1] The British were also critical saying that the receiver could be bent and the bolt locked up by the mere act of knocking a leaning rifle onto a hard floor. [2]

To its credit, it was the first weapon of its class, and the concept had a major impact on modern infantry small arms development. By all accounts, the StG44 fulfilled its role admirably, particularly on the Eastern Front, offering a greatly increased volume of fire compared to standard infantry rifles. In the end, it came too late to have a significant effect on the tide of the war.


Type Light automatic rifle/assault rifle
Place of origin Nazi Germany
Service history
In service July 1944–May 1945 (Nazi Germany)
Used by Nazi Germany, German Democratic Republic
Wars World War II
Production history
Designed 1943
Produced July 1944–May 1945
Number built 425,977
Specifications
Weight 5.22 kg (11.5 lb)
Length 940 mm (37 in)
Barrel length 419 mm (16.5 in)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cartridge 7.92x33mm Kurz
Action Gas-operated, tilting bolt
Rate of fire 500-600 rounds/min
Muzzle velocity 685 m/s (2,247 ft/s)
Effective range 300 meters
Feed system 30-round detachable box magazine
Sights adjustable 800meter sights with Rear: V-notch; front: ring with vertical post



MP43
While the new version was under development in late 1942, administrative infighting within the Third Reich was in full swing. Hitler was increasingly concerned with this, and after Hermann Göring had created the FG 42 in a separate program from the army's similar Gewehr 41 efforts, Hitler canceled all new rifle projects completely. This included the production of the MKb 42(H). One concern was that the new weapon used a new ammunition type which would further hamper an already daunting logistics problem.




MP44, StG44
On 6 April 1944, Adolf Hitler issued the following decree:

a) The former MG42 is to retain the same designation
b) The former self-loading rifle, known as the Gewehr 43, shall receive the designation Karabiner 43 (K43).
c) The former new MP, known as the MP43, shall receive the designation MP44.
In July 1944 at a meeting of the various army heads about the Eastern Front, when Hitler asked what they needed, a general blurted out "More of these new rifles!" This caused some confusion, but once Hitler was given a chance to test fire the MP44, he was impressed and gave it the title Sturmgewehr. Seeing the possibility of a propaganda gain, the rifle was again renamed as the StG44, to highlight the new class of weapon it represented, translated "assault rifle, model 1944", thereby introducing the term.[1]

By the end of the war, some 425,977 StG44 variants of all types were produced. The assault rifle proved a valuable weapon, especially on the Eastern front, where it was first deployed. A properly trained soldier with an StG44 had an improved tactical repertoire, in that he could effectively engage targets at longer ranges than with an MP40, but be much more useful than the Kar98k in close combat, as well as provide light cover fire like a light machine gun.

The StG44 was an intermediate weapon for the period; the muzzle velocity from its 42 cm barrel was 647 m/s, compared to 880 m/s (K98k), 744 m/s (Bren), 600 m/s (M2 Carbine), and 365 m/s (MP40).

One unusual addition to the design was the Krummlauf, a bent-barrel attachment for rifles with a periscope sighting device for shooting around corners from a safe position. It was produced in several variants, an "I"-version for infantry use, a "P" version for use in tanks (to cover the dead areas in the close range around the tank, to defend against assaulting infantry), versions with 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° bends, a version for the StG44 and one for the MG 42. Only the 30° "I" version for the StG44 was produced in any numbers. The bent barrel attachments had very short lifespans - 300 rounds for the 30° version, and 160 for the 45° variant. The 30° model was able to achieve a 35X35 cm grouping at 100m.[4]

A primary use of the MP44/StG44 was to counter the Soviet PPS and PPSh submachine guns, which used a 7.62x25mm Tokarev round. These cheap mass-produced weapons used a 71-round drum magazine or 35-round "box" magazine and though shorter-ranged than the Kar98k rifle were more effective weapons in close quarter combat. The StG44, while also lacking the range of the Kar98k, had a longer range than the PPS/PPSh submachine guns and a comparable rate of fire. Also, while they could fire fully automatic, they were designed to default to semi-auto fire. They were surprisingly accurate, and their slow rate of fire gave them controllability even on full-auto. While the design details are quite different, the concept of the StG44 was obviously carried on in the most famous and most numerously manufactured assault rifle, the AK-47.




In order to preserve the weapons development, a new project at Gustloff was starting to produce a similar weapon using the original Mauser round, the Mkb 43(G). Whenever Hitler asked about the progress of the rifle, he was always shown one of these prototypes, although there was no intention of producing them. Meanwhile the newest version of the original Mkb 42(H) was called the Maschinenpistole 43 (MP43) to disguise it as an upgrade to existing submachine guns. Another change fitted a rifle grenade launcher attachment from the earlier MKb 42(H) to the MP43/1.

Eventually the truth surfaced and Hitler ordered the project stopped once again. However in March 1943 he allowed the run to continue for evaluation purposes, which then continued until September. Due to the positive combat reports, it was then allowed to continue.



avatar
.:A:.Death
Administrator
Administrator

Male Number of posts : 73
Age : 22
Location : SRBIJA
Registration date : 2007-12-11

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

TommyGUN

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 1:26 pm



MODEL 21AC (Fig. 1)
(No Tools Necessary for This Dismounting)

1.
Cutts Compensator. 18. Firing Pin Spring.
2.
Front Sight (Dovetailed into Compensator). 19. Hammer.
3.
Barrel. 20. Hammer Pin.
4.
Receiver. 21. Buffer Pilot.
5.
Rear Sight (Lyman), leaf raised. 22. Buffer.
6.
Ejector (Not removed for photo). 23. Recoil Spring.
7.
Frame Latch and Spring. 24. Sear Spring
8.
Actuator. 25. Sear Lever.
9.
Lock. 26. Sear Lever Spring.
10
Bolt. 27. Safety.
11.
Pivot Plate. 28. Rocker Pivot, or Fire Control Lever.
12.
Sear. 29. Trigger Spring.
13.
Magazine Catch. 30. Trip.
14.
Magazine Catch Spring. 31. Disconnector.
15.
Frame with Grip Attached. 32. Disconnector Spring.
16.
Extractor. 33. Rocker.
17.
Firing Pin. 34. Trigger.


"What is it?' was the topmost question. "A machine gun? What's it for?"

The designers let their friends into the secret. It was a new development¾and when prepared for the market would be known as the Thompson Sub-Machine Gun¾one of the fastest firing, weapons ever devised!

That same year the new gun was adopted by the New York Police. The first move in making, the Sub-Machine Gun internationally famous had started¾a move which has steadily spread until, with the start of 1932, several hundred police departments in the United States and Canada are equipped with the weapon which has made history in law enforcement.

The writer has been keenly interested in the Thompson gun ever since that initial showing at Perry. His interest has prompted the [Page 1100] preparation of this compilation of historical and practical data on a much misunderstood firearm.

The few Thompson guns which have fallen into the hands of law breakers are much more in a minority than law enforcement executives believe. For nearly two years, it is safe to state, probably
Thompson, however, set forth to design a mechanical action having the following features:

Simplicity
Accessibility
Positive action under all conditions
Normally light weight
High rate of controlled fire.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Lee-Enfield

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 1:47 pm


Lee-Enfield Mk.1 rifle - the original "Long" Lee-Enfield, made in 1900. Note the dust cover on the bolt, magazine cut-off and lack of the rear receiver bridge with its charger clip guides
1916 Lee-Enfield volley sight (at left the "volley" front sight, mounted on the left side of the stock, just ahead of the traditional rear sight. At right - the diopter rear "volley" sight, mounted alongside the safety on the receiver)
left image by Alan Blank

Caliber .303 British (7.7x56mm R)
Action manually operated, rotating bolt
Overall length 1260 mm 1132 mm 1129 mm 1003 mm
Barrel length 767 mm 640 mm 640 mm 478 mm
Weight 4.19 kg 3.96 kg 4.11 kg 3.24 kg
Magazine capacity 10 rounds in detachable box magazine
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: Weapons

Post  .:A:.Diavollo on Sat Jan 26, 2008 1:58 pm

Weapon is good!xD
avatar
.:A:.Diavollo
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 127
Age : 23
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-11

View user profile http://anarchy.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

Kar98

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 4:13 pm


The Karabiner 98k was a bolt-action rifle with Mauser-type action holding five rounds of 7.92x57mm Mauser on a stripper clip, loaded into an internal magazine. It was derived from earlier rifles, namely the Karabiner 98b, which in turn had been developed from the Mauser Model 1898. The Gewehr 98 or Model 1898 took its principles from the Lebel Model 1886 rifle with the improvement of a metallic magazine of five cartridges. Since the rifle was shorter than the earlier carbines, it was given the designation Karabiner 1898 Kurz, meaning "Short Carbine Model 1898". The standard Karabiner 98k iron sights could be regulated for ranges from 100 m up to 2000 m in 100 m increments.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

M1 Garand

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 4:21 pm


Though the U.S. Army became interested in self-loading rifles with the Bang and Murphy-Manning of 1911, and there were trials in 1916-8,[5] the M1's origin properly dates to 1919, when armies around the world were realizing standard rifle cartridges were more powerful than necessary for typical engagement ranges, leading to heavier weapons than really required. The Army trials in the 1920s had a .256in minimum caliber requirement, compared to the .30-'06 then standard.[6]

Firearms designer John C. Garand, working at the Army's Springfield Armory, began with a .30 caliber primer-operated breech. Twenty-four rifles, identified as "M1922", were built at Springfield in summer 1924, and at Fort Benning during the summer of 1925 they were tested against the Thompson autoloading rifle, Berthier, Hatcher-Bang, and "highly promising delayed blowback Pedersen rifle".[7] This led to a further trial of the improved "M1924" Garand against the Thompson, ultimately producing an inconclusive report.[8] Therefore, the Ordnance Board ordered a Garand variant .30-'06, while in March 1927 the Cavalry Board reported trials between the Thompson, Garand, and '03 Springfield had not led to a clear winner, leading to a gas-operated .276 model.[9]

During the spring of 1928, both Infantry and Cavalry Boards ran trials with the .276 Pedersen T1 rifle, giving it high praise (despite its use of waxed ammunition[10]). On 13 August 1928, a Semiautomatic Rifle Board carried out joint Army, Navy, and Marine Corps trials between the .30 Thompson, both cavalry and infantry versions of the T1 Pedersen, "M1924" Garand, and .256 Bang, and on 21 September came back with no clear winner. The .30 Garand, however, was dropped in favor of the .276.[11]

Further tests by the SRB in July 1929, which included Brauning, Colt-Browning, Garand, Holek, Pedersen, Rheinmetall, Thompson, and an incomplete White,[12] led to a recommendation work on the (dropped) .30 gas-operated Garand be resumed, and a T1E1 was ordered 14 November 1929.

Twenty gas-operated .276 T3E2s Garands were made and competed with T1 Pedersen rifles in Spring 1931. The .276 Garand was the clear winner of these trials. The .30 caliber Garand was tested at these trials in the form of a single T1E1 prototype but was withdrawn with a cracked bolt on 9 October 1931. A 4 January 1932 meeting recommended adoption of the .276 caliber and production of approximately 125 T3E2s. Meanwhile, Garand redesigned his bolt and his improved T1E2 rifle was retested. The day after the successful conclusion of this test, Army Chief of Staff General Douglas MacArthur personally disapproved any caliber change, in part because there were extensive stocks of .30 ammunition.[13] On 25 February 1932, Adjutant General John B. Shuman, speaking for the Secretary of War, ordered work on the weapons and ammunition in .276 caliber cease immediately and completely and all resources be directed toward identification and correction of deficiencies in the Garand .30 caliber.[14] The Garand worked in .30 caliber and MacArthur wanted it.

On 3 August 1933, the T1E2 became the Semi-Automatic Rifle, Caliber 30, M1.[15] In May 1934, 75 M1s went to field trials; 50 were to infantry, 25 to cavalry units.[16] Numerous problems were reported, forcing the rifle to be modified, yet again, before it could be recommended for service and cleared for procurement on 7 November 1935, then standardized 9 January 1936.[17] The first production model was successfully proof-fired, function-fired, and fired for accuracy on July 21, 1937.[18]

Production difficulties delayed deliveries until September 1937. Springfield reached an output of 100 per day early in September 1939. Despite its production status, design issues were not at an end. The barrel and gas cylinder assembly were redesigned and entered production in early 1940. The problem proved so thorny, even the Johnson had to be deferred so Springfield could concentrate on the problematic Garand. Production ramped up in 1940,[19] reaching 600 a day by 10 January 1941,[20] and the Army was fully equipped by 1941.[21]

Following the outbreak of World War II in Europe, Winchester was awarded an "educational" production contract for 65000 rifles,[22] with deliveries beginning in 1943.[23] The British Army tested the M1 Garand as a possible replacement for its bolt-action Lee-Enfield No.1 Mk III, but rejected it after trials to simulate combat conditions.[24] [25]


John Garand presents his rifle to Army officials.The M1's semiautomatic operation gave United States forces a significant advantage in firepower and shot-to-shot response time over individual enemy infantrymen in battle (German and Japanese soldiers were usually armed with bolt-action rifles).[26] The impact of faster-firing infantry small arms in general soon stimulated both Allied and Axis forces to greatly augment issue of semi- and fully-automatic weapons then in production, as well as to develop new types of infantry firearms.

The Garand remains popular among civilian weapons collectors and enthusiasts all over the world. General George S. Patton called it "the greatest implement of battle ever devised."[27]

Much of the M1 inventory in the post-WWII period underwent arsenal repair or rebuilding. While U.S. forces were still engaged in the Korean War, the Department of Defense determined a need for additional production of the Garand, and two new contracts were awarded. During 1953-56, M1s were produced by International Harvester and Harrington & Richardson.[28] Beretta also produced Garands using Winchester tooling. Most recently, the M1 was produced by Springfield Armory, Inc. of Geneseo, Illinois. This civilian variant is offered in either .30-06 Springfield or .308 Winchester chambering.

The M1 proved an excellent rifle throughout its service in World War II and the Korean War. The Japanese even developed a copy for their own use near the end of World War II, but it never reached production. Surplus M1 rifles also armed many nations of the free world in World War II and postwar, including Germany, Italy and Japan. Some Garands were still being used in the Vietnam War in 1963; despite the M14's official adoption in 1957, it was not until 1965 the changeover from the M1 Garand was completed in the active-duty component of the Army (with the exception of the sniper variants, which were introduced in WWII and saw action in Korea and Vietnam). In other components of the armed forces, such as the Army Reserve, Army National Guard and the Navy, Garands continued to serve into the 1970s or longer. For example, photos of Ohio Army National Guard troops at the Kent State shootings in May 1970 clearly show Garands.

Some military drill teams still use the M1, including the U.S. Marine Corps Silent Drill Team, the Norwegian Royal Guards Drill Team, and almost all Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) teams of all branches. Modern Drill Team M1s are permanently disabled by having a metal rod welded into the barrel. Exhibition teams often use fiberglass stocks In place of wooden ones, the latter being heavier and more prone to breakage when dropped.
The M1 rifle is a gas-operated, semi-automatic, clip-fed rifle.[29] By modern standards, the M1's feeding system is archaic, relying on clips to feed ammunition, and is the principal source of criticism of the Garand rifle. Officials in Army Ordnance circles demanded a fixed, non-protruding magazine for the new service rifle. At the time, it was believed that a detachable magazine on a general-issue service rifle would be easily lost by U.S. soldiers (a criticism made of British soldiers and the Lee-Enfield 50 years previously), would render the weapon too susceptible to clogging from dirt and debris (a belief that proved unfounded with the adoption of the M1 Carbine), and that a protruding magazine would complicate existing manual-of-arms drills. As a result, inventor John Pedersen developed an "en bloc" clip system that allowed ammunition to be inserted from above, clip included, into the fixed magazine. While this design provided the requisite flush-mount magazine, the clip system increased the rifle's weight, and prevented it from being fired without a clip, such as while reloading.

Garand's rifle was originally chambered for the .276 Pedersen cartridge,[30] charged by means of 10-round clips. Later, it was chambered for the then-standard .30-06 Springfield. With this new cartridge, the Garand had a maximum effective range of 500 yards (457 m), with the capability of inflicting a casualty with armor-piercing ammunition well beyond 880 yards (approx. 800 m). Because of the larger diameter of the .30-06 cartridge, the reworked magazine design held only eight rounds instead of ten.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Mosin-Nagant

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 9:18 pm


The Mosin-Nagant (Russian: Винтовка Мосина; Mosin Rifle) is a bolt-action, magazine fed, military rifle that was used by the armed forces of Imperial Russia and later the Soviet Union and various Eastern bloc nations. Also known as the Three-Line Rifle (Russian: Трёхлинейная винтовка), it was the first to use the 7.62x54mmR cartridge. As a front-line rifle, the Mosin-Nagant served in various forms from 1891 until the 1960s in many Eastern European nations, when the sniper rifle variant was replaced by the SVD (Russian: Снайперская винтовка Драгунова; Dragunov Sniper Rifle). The Mosin-Nagant is still used in many conflicts due to its ruggedness and the vast number produced during World War II.


During the Russo-Turkish War, Russian troops armed with mostly Berdan single-shot rifles engaged Turks with Winchester repeating rifles resulting in alarmingly disproportionate casualties. This emphasised to commanders a need to modernize the Imperial army. The Russian Main Artillery Administration undertook the task of producing a magazine-fed, multiround weapon in 1882. After failing to adequately modify the Berdan system to meet the requirements, a "Special Commission for the testing of Magazine[-fed] Rifles" was formed to test new designs.

Sergei Ivanovich Mosin, a young captain in the Imperial army, submitted his "3-line" calibre (.30 cal, 7.62 mm) rifle in 1889 alongside a 3.5-line design by Léon Nagant (a Belgian). When trials concluded in 1891 all units to test the rifles indicated a preference for Nagant's design and the Commission voted 14 to 10 to approve it. However more influential officers pushed for the domestic design, resulting in a compromise: Mosin's rifle was used with a Nagant-designed feed mechanism. Thus the 3-line rifle, Model 1891 (its official designation at the time) came into being.

Production began in 1892 at the ordnance factories of Tula Arsenal, Izhevsk Arsenal, and Sestroryetsk Arsenal. Due to the limited capacities of these facilities and the newly formed Franco-Russian Alliance, an order of 500,000 rifles was placed with the French arms factory, Manufacture Nationale d'Armes de Châtellerault.

By the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, approximately 3.8 million rifles had been delivered to the army. Initial reaction by units equipped with the rifle were mixed, but this was likely due to poor maintenance by undertrained infantrymen used to Berdans.

Between adoption of the final design in 1891 and 1910, several variants and modifications to existing rifles were made.
[edit] World War I
With the start of World War I, production was restricted to the M1891 dragoon and infantry models for the sake of simplicity. Due to the desperate shortage of arms and the shortcomings of a still-developing domestic industry, the Russian government ordered 1.5 million M1891 infantry rifles from Remington Arms and another 1.8 million from New England Westinghouse in the United States. Some of these rifles were not delivered before the outbreak of the October Revolution and the subsequent signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which ended hostilities between the Central Powers and Russia. The rifles in Great Britain armed the US and British expeditionary forces sent to North Russia in 1918 and 1919. The rifles still in the US ended up being primarily used as training firearms for the US Army. Some were used to equip US National Guard, SATC and ROTC units. Designated "U.S. Rifle, 7.62mm, Model of 1916", these are among the most obscure U.S. service arms. In 1917, 50,000 of these rifles were sent via Vladivostok to equip the Czechoslovak Legions in Siberia to aid in their attempt to secure passage to France.

Large numbers of Mosin-Nagants were captured by German and Austro-Hungarian forces and saw service with both militaries' rear-echelon forces and the German navy. Many of these weapons were sold to Finland in the 1920s.
[edit] World War II
When the Soviet Union was invaded by Nazi Germany in 1941 the Mosin-Nagant was the standard issue weapon to Soviet troops. As a result, millions of the rifles were produced and used in World War II as the largest army in history mobilized.

The Mosin-Nagant was adapted as a sniper rifle in 1932 and was issued to Soviet snipers. It served quite prominently in the brutal urban battles on the Eastern Front, like the Battle of Stalingrad, which made heroes of snipers like Vasily Grigoryevich Zaitsev and Lyudmila Pavlichenko. The sniper rifles were very much respected for being very rugged, reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain.

By the end of the war, approximately 17.4 million M91/30 rifles had been produced.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

MG42

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 9:25 pm


The Maschinengewehr 1942, or MG42, is a German machine gun, first manufactured in 1942 as the successor to the MG34. During WWII, the MG42 had the fastest rate of fire of any weapon, at 1200 rounds per minute (up to 1800 in some versions). At this rate it becomes impossible for the human ear to discern the sound of individual bullets being fired, and thus when in use the gun makes a sound described both as "ripping cloth" and "Hitler's Buzzsaw". During the war, over 400,000 were manufactured.

In the late 1930s the MG34 was arguably the best machine gun in the world at the time, but was expensive and time consuming to construct. In order to arm the increasingly large German army, an effort was started to build a simpler gun that could be built much faster. The winning design was offered by a newcommer to the contest, Metall-und-Lackierwarenfabrik Johannes Grossfuss AG, experts in pressed and punched steel parts. Their efforts resulted in a dramatic reduction in complexity – it took 75 man-hours to complete the new gun as opposed to 150 for the MG34, and cost 250RM as opposed to 327RM.

The resulting MG39 remained largely similar to the earlier MG34, a deliberate decision made in order to maintain familiarity. The only major change from the gunner's perspective was dropping the drum-feed options, leaving it with belts only, and the further increase in the rate of fire. Although made of "cheap" parts, the prototypes also proved to be considerably more rugged and resistant to jamming than the somewhat tempermental MG34.

Given the success of the prototype, it's somewhat mysterious that the gun did not enter production until 1942, thereby requiring a renaming to MG42. As soon as it was introduced it garnered intense demand by field units, a demand that German industry was never able to meet.

The MG42 weighed 11.6kg in the light machine gun role with the bipod, lighter than the MG34 and easily portable. The bipod, the same one used on the MG34, could be mounted to the front or the center of the gun depending on where it was being used. In the role as a heavy machine gun it utilised a newly developed Lafette 42 tripod that weighed 20.5kg on its own. The barrel was lighter than the MG34s and wore out more quickly, but could be replaced in seconds by an experienced gunner.

In 1944 the acute material shortages of the Third Rheich led to a newer version, the MG45 (or MG42V), which used steel of lesser quality, reduced weight to only 9kg, and yet further improved the maximum rate of fire. First tests were undertaken in June 1944, but development dragged on and eventually only ten were ever built.

Even today it is still regarded by many experts as the best machine gun ever. The MG42, with minor modifications, is still the primary heavy machine gun of the modern German army, now called the MG3. A number of other armies around the world have adopted versions of the original, and guns looking similar, or identical, to the MG42 remain in widespread service today. The US Army's M-60 is based upon the MG42
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Gewehr 43

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Jan 26, 2008 9:39 pm


The Gewehr 98, named for 1898, the first year of its manufacture, superseded the earlier Model 1888 Commission Rifle (also known as Gewehr 88) in German service. The G98 itself was the latest in a line of Mauser rifles that were introduced in the 1890s. It was a bolt-action rifle, 1250 mm in length and 4.09 kilograms in weight. It had a 740 mm long rifled barrel and carried 5 rounds of 7.92 x 57 mm Mauser ammunition in an internal magazine.

The German Rifle Testing Commission adopted the Gewehr 98 on 5 April 1898. The action was derived from the experimental Gewehr 96 Rifle. In 1901, the first troop issues of the Gewehr 98 Rifles were made to the East Asian Expeditionary Force, the Navy and three premier Prussian army corps. In 1904, contracts where placed with Waffenfabrik Mauser for 290,000 rifles and DWM for 210,000 rifles. In 1905 the 8 mm standard cartridge was changed from an "I" (it has been declared that the common "J" reference was a miscommunication with American intelligence, and it ended up sticking) .318 in (8.08 mm) bullet to the new .323 in (8.20 mm) IS-Patrone spitzer bullet which was indicated by a small 's' stamped above the chamber and on the barrel at the back of the rear sight base, the sight was changed to the 'Lange Vizier' which is distinctively large. The Gewehr 98 received its baptism of fire in the Boxer Rebellion.

The bolt used in the various Mauser designs was very good, with extra large gas escape holes designed to protect the user in case of a cartridge rupture or explosion, good extraction of fired cartridge cases, shrouded bolt face, guide rib, under-cut extractor, and a three-position safety at the rear of the bolt which can be flicked from right (safety on, bolt locked) to middle (safety on, bolt can be opened for reloading), to left (ready to fire) but only when the rifle is cocked, otherwise the safety will not move. The bolt handle on the Gewehr 98 is straight and protrudes out (although on Gewehr 98s equipped with sniper scopes, the bolt was replaced with a model with a turned-down handle, so the scope could be mounted directly over the rifle, and to accommodate the turned-down handle a cavity was cut into the stock). The Gewehr 98 has two sling swivels, open front sights, and a curved tangent-type rear sight, known as the 'Lange Visier'
Not to be confused with the later Karabiner 98k, the Karabiner 98a (K98a) was a shorter version of the Gewehr 98 originally made for cavalry and support unit use. The original model Karabiner 98, with a shorter barrel than the G98, was produced from 1899-1908 but it was not successful. In 1908 the Karabiner Model 1898AZ was approved. The new features were a small diameter receiver ring, tapered rather than stepped barrel contour, an L-shaped stacking rod attached to the stock near the muzzle, a turned-down bolt handle and excavation in the stock in the same fashion as sniper Gewehr 98s. The "A" stood for "with bayonet", the "Z" stood for stacking pyramid, meaning carbine Model 1898 with bayonet attachment point and stacking rod device. In 1923 the AZ was dropped for 'a' as Germany sought to distinguish the model from the newer models 'b' and 'k'.[1]

During World War I The Karabiner 98a was issued to cavalry, and also to mountain troops, and later to "established" assault units. It was liked because it was lighter and less bulky than the Gewehr 98, and was thus better suited for use in trench assaults.The Karabiner 98b was another "carbine" variant. The Karabiner Model 1898b was introduced in 1923.[2] The new rifle had a long Gewehr 98 type barrel, tangent rear sight as opposed to the original ramp sight, wider lower band with side sling attachment bar with a side butt attachment point, and a turned down bolt handle. It was essentially the same length as the Gewehr 98 and was designated as a carbine to comply with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which only allowed Germany to produce carbines and no rifles.[3] The Karabiner 98k was derived from this variant of the Gewehr 98.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Browning Automatic Rifle(BAR)

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 9:49 am


The Browning Automatic Rifle (more formally designated first as the Rifle, Caliber .30, Automatic, Browning, M1918 and later the Browning Automatic Rifle, Caliber .30, M1918A2; and commonly known as the BAR), is a family of automatic rifles (or machine rifles) and light machine guns used by the United States and other countries during the 20th century.

It was designed in 1917 by the weapons designer John Browning, primarily as a replacement for (and improvement on) the French-made Chauchat and Hotchkiss M1909. The BAR was originally intended as a light automatic rifle, but spent much of its career in various guises used in the light machine gun role with a bipod. The original M1918 version was and remains the lightest service machine gun to fire the .30-06 Springfield cartridge, though the limited capacity of its standard 20-round magazine tended to hamper its utility as a light machine gun.
The BAR is a gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed automatic rifle that fires from an open bolt. Built for the U.S. military, the BAR was chambered for the standard .30-06 Springfield service round. The rifle weighed between 16 and 19 pounds (7.3 to 8.6 kg) empty, depending upon the model. The barrel is screwed into the receiver and is not quickly detachable. The magazine was a 20 round detachable box, though a 40-round version was briefly issued for anti-aircraft use.
From its inception, the BAR M1918 was an automatic rifle. First issued in February 1918, it was hoped the BAR might help break the stalemate of the trenches by the concept of "walking fire" (following French practise),[1] an automatic weapon accompanying advancing squads of riflemen rushing from trench to trench. In addition to shoulder-fired operation, BAR gunners were issued a belt with magazine pouches for the BAR and sidearm along with a "cup" to support the stock of the rifle when held at the hip. In theory, this allowed the soldier to lay suppressive fire while walking forward, keeping the enemy's head down until it was too late. (The idea would resurface in the submachine gun and ultimately the assault rifle.) It is not known if any of these belt-cup devices actually saw combat use. The BAR saw little action in WWI, in part due to the Armistice, in part because the U.S. Army was reluctant to have the BAR fall into enemy hands, its first action being in September of 1918. Eighty-five thousand BARs were built by the war's end.

In 1922, the M1922 BAR was introduced. This version was equipped with a flanged or finned barrel and side-mounted sling swivel, and was intended for use by the U.S. Cavalry. The M1922 had no bipod as issued, although one could be fitted if desired. In terms of designation, a slight difference in terminology existed as to the M1922, which was termed a "machine rifle", as opposed to an "automatic rifle" or "machine gun". In June 1937, a small number of M1918s were modified to include a spiked bipod attached to the gas cylinder and a hinged buttplate. These weapons were designated M1918A1.

In 1940, the final BAR model—the M1918A2—was introduced. This model did away with the semi-automatic fire option in favor of fully automatic fire only. The rate of fire was adjustable, with a choice between "fast-auto" (500–650 round/min) and "slow-auto" (300–450 round/min). This was accomplished by the use of a highly complicated recoil buffer mechanism that was difficult to clean, and often proved susceptible in service to damage from moisture and corrosion, often rendering the weapon inoperable. The (unspiked) bipod was now attached to the barrel, a flash hider was added, a rear monopod was hinged to the butt, and the weapon's role was changed to that of a squad light machinegun. Its success in this role was mixed at best, since the BAR's fixed non-replaceable barrel and small magazine capacity greatly limited its utility in comparison to genuine light machineguns such as the Bren or the Japanese Type 96. The bipod and flashhider, being easily removable, were often discarded by troops to save weight and improve the portability of the BAR. In combat, particularly in the Pacific theatre of war, the BAR effectively reverted to its original role as a portable, shoulder-fired automatic rifle. In 1942, a fiberglass buttstock replaced the wood version, and late in the war, a barrel-mounted carrying handle was added.
Issued as the heavy fire support for a squad, all men were trained at the basic level how to operate and fire the BAR in case the man carrying it was out of action. While not without its design flaws (a thin-diameter, fixed barrel that quickly overheated, limited magazine capacity, complex field-strip/cleaning procedure, unreliable recoil buffer mechanism, a gas cylinder assembly made of corrosion-prone metals, and many small internal parts), the basic BAR design nevertheless proved itself when kept clean and earned a reputation as being rugged and reliable. It served as a frontline standard weapon from the latter days of World War I through World War II, and was pressed into use in the Korean War as well. The BAR was also used in the early stages of the Vietnam War, when the U.S. passed a quantity to the South Vietnamese. Quantities of the BAR remained in use by the Army National Guard up until the mid 1970s. Many nations in NATO and recipients of U.S. foreign aid adopted the BAR and used it into the 1990s. Poland (Browning wz.1928), Belgium (FN M1930) and Sweden (Kulsprutegevär m/21 and m/37) developed and issued BAR variants during the 1930s which had pistol grips and quick-change barrels.

The BAR proved a popular civilian weapon in the U.S., although fully automatic models were greatly restricted in the 1930s, which made them much harder to own and transfer. Importation of machine guns for U.S. civilian transfer was banned in 1968, and U.S. production of machine guns for civilian transfer was banned in 1986. Transferable civilian-owned BAR models remain, however.

Clyde Barrow of Bonnie and Clyde used a shortened BAR (stolen from National Guard armories) during his spree in the 1930s. The six lawmen who killed Bonnie and Clyde also used a variant of the BAR called the Monitor in their ambush.

A modern manufacturer of firearms has produced a semi-automatic version of the Browning Automatic Rifle known as the 1918A3 SLR ("self-loading rifle").

The 'BAR' hunting rifle currently offered by Browning is a completely different firearm, unrelated in design to the Browning military weapons.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

Colt 45

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 9:58 am


The .45 Colt cartridge (known incorrectly as the .45 Long Colt) was developed by the US Army at Frankford Arsenal in 1872 as an improvement of the British .476 Eley to replace the standard issue Smith and Wesson .44 round in the famous Colt Single Action Army, often known as the Peacemaker single action revolver. The US Army adopted the cartridge in 1873 and it remained in use until 1877 when the army went to the M1877 ball revolver load. The new round was shorter than the original in case length and used a reduced powder charge of approximately 30 grains (2 g) of black powder vs the 40 grains (3 g) in the original. All Colt army revolvers were still chambered to fit the longer .45 cartridge case. In 1892 it was replaced by the .38 Long Colt. The US Army briefly reintroduced the .45 Colt in 1902 for use in the Philippines, but it was made obsolete by new automatic pistols firing .45 ACP.
Originally a blackpowder cartridge, modern loadings use smokeless powder. The original blackpowder loads called for 30 to 40 grains (3 g) of blackpowder behind a 255 grain lead bullet. Original loads developed muzzle velocities of up to 1000 feet per second (305 m/s), for a muzzle energy of 566 ft·lbf (766 J.).[2] Because of this, the .45 Colt was the most used cartridge of its time, preceded by the .44 WCF (also known as the .44-40). It was said that the round was powerful enough to knock a man to the ground in a single shot. It is also extremely accurate. With careful handloading the original loads can be safely replicated using modern powders.

Today's standard factory loads develop around 400 ft·lbf (542 J) of muzzle energy at about 860 feet per second (262 m/s), making it equivalent to the .45 ACP. There are also Cowboy Action Shooting loads which develop muzzle velocities of around 750 feet per second (230 m/s).

Some very heavy handloads and some cartridges loaded by small companies are around that put this round in the same class as the faster .44 Magnum. Such loads are not issued by major companies such as Winchester and Remington.

These loads cannot be used in any original Colt Single-Action Army, or any replica thereof (such as those produced by Uberti or Beretta, and guns like the Taurus Gaucho, or Ruger New Vaquero.) They should only be used in modern large-frame revolvers such as the Ruger Blackhawk, any gun firing the .454 Casull cartridge, or single-shot hunting pistols and modern rifles with strong actions (such as the Winchester Model 1894, Marlin Model 1894, and new clones of the Winchester Model 1892) chambered for the cartridge.

Uses

Over 133 years after its introduction, the .45 Colt still enjoys a wide range of uses. The .45 Colt makes a good hunting load, within its range limitations. Standard loads are good for animals the size of deer and black bear, and the heavier hunting loads will take about the same range of big game animals as the .44 Magnum, but less effectively, as the bullets of the factory loads move comparatively slowly and have a steep trajectory making long range hits harder. A two-barrel derringer is also still sold that is chambered in .45 Colt, and these derringers will also chamber a .410 bore shotgun shell without any modifications being required. Similarly, .45 Colt cartridges are still occasionally fired in .410 bore shotguns by U.S. farmers needing to kill a mule or horse humanely. However, the most popular use for the .45 Colt today is in Cowboy Action Shooting, where the round is fired from either originals or replicas of the 1873 Colt Single-Action Army or similar guns of the period.
Comparisons with other cartridges

The .45 Colt is the basis for the much more powerful .454 Casull cartridge, with the 454 Casull having a slightly longer and stronger case. Any 454 Casull revolver will also chamber and fire .45 Colt.

The .460 S&W Magnum is an even longer version of the 454 Casull and the .45 Colt. Likewise, 460 Magnum revolvers can also chamber and fire the two lesser calibers.

The .45 ACP round produces inferior game killing ability, as it cannot use heavyweight bullets. It uses a much shorter overall cartridge length, with faster burning powders and higher chamber pressures, allowing it to be used in more compact autoloading pistols and submachine guns. Because of this, the .45 ACP is superior to the .45 Colt for military purposes.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

Luger

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 10:00 am


The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly (but incorrectly) known as the Luger is a toggle locked, recoil operated, semi-automatic pistol. The design was patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and produced by German arms manufacturer Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900; it was an evolution of the 1898 Hugo Borchardt designed C-93.

The Luger was made popular by its use by Germany during World War I and World War II. Though the Luger pistol was first introduced in 7.65x22mm Parabellum, it is notable for being the pistol for which the 9x19mm Parabellum cartridge was developed.
Design

The Luger pistol was manufactured to exacting standards and has a long service life. Bill Ruger praised the Luger's 55 degree grip angle and duplicated it in his .22 LR pistol.
Operation

The Luger uses a toggle-lock action, which utilizes a jointed arm to lock, as opposed to the slide actions of almost every other semi-automatic pistol. The mechanism is explained as follows: after a round is fired, the barrel and toggle assembly (both locked together at this point) travel rearward due to recoil. After moving roughly one-half inch (13 mm) rearward, the toggle strikes a cam built into the frame, causing the knee joint to hinge and the toggle and breech assembly to unlock. At this point the barrel stops its rearward movement (it impacts the frame), but the toggle and breech assembly continue moving (bending the knee joint) due to momentum, extracting the spent casing from the chamber and ejecting it. The toggle and breech assembly subsequently travel forward (under spring tension) and the next round from the magazine is loaded into the chamber. The entire sequence occurs in a fraction of a second.

In World War I, as submachine guns were found to be effective in trench warfare, experiments with converting various types of pistols to machine pistols (Reihenfeuerpistolen, literally "rapid-fire pistols") were conducted. Among those the Luger pistol (German Army designation Pistole 08) was examined; however, unlike the Mauser C96, which was converted in great numbers to Reihenfeuerpistole, the Luger proved to have an excessive rate of fire in full-automatic mode.
Service

The P.08 was the usual sidearm for German Army personnel in both world wars, though it was being replaced by the Walther P38 starting in 1938. In 1930, Mauser took over manufacture of the P.08 (until 1943).[2] The Swiss Army evaluated the Luger pistol in 7.65 mm P (.30 Luger in USA) and adopted it in 1900 as its standard sidearm, designated Ordonnanzpistole 00 or OP00, in 1900.
The Luger pistol was accepted by the German Navy in 1904, and in 1908 (as Pistole 08) by the German Army (chambered in 9x19mm Parabellum) replacing the Reichsrevolver. The Lange Pistole 08 or Artillery Luger had a stock and longer barrel, and sometimes used with a 32 round drum magazine (Trommelmagazin 08).

The United States evaluated several semi-automatic pistols in the late 1800s, including the Colt M1900, Steyr Mannlicher M1894, and an entry from Mauser. In 1900 the US purchased 1000 7.65 mm Lugers for field trials. Later, a small number were sampled in the then-new, more powerful 9 mm round. Field experience with .38 caliber revolvers in the Philippines and ballistic tests would result in a requirement for still-larger rounds.
In 1906, the US Army held trials for a large-caliber semi-automatic. After initial trials, DWM, Savage, and Colt were asked to provide further samples for evaluation. DWM withdrew for reasons that are still debated, though the Army did place an order for 200 more samples.
Usage today

Although obsolete in many ways, the Luger is still sought after by collectors both for its sleek design, superlative accuracy, great durability, and by its connection to Imperial and Nazi Germany. Limited production of the P.08 by its original manufacturer resumed when Mauser refurbished a quantity of them in 1999 for the pistol's centenary. More recently, Krieghoff announced the continuation of its Parabellum Model 08 line with 200 examples at $15,950.00 apiece. The Luger was prized by Allied soldiers during both of the World Wars. Thousands were taken home during both wars, and are still in circulation today.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

MP40

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 10:08 am


The MP40 (Maschinenpistole 40, literally "machine pistol 40") is a submachine gun developed in Germany and used extensively by paratroopers and platoon and squad leaders, and other troops during World War II. The MP40 had a relatively low rate of fire and low recoil, which made it more manageable than other contemporary submachine guns.

History

The MP40 is descended from the MP36, a select-fire prototype made of machined steel, of which only two examples remain. The MP36 prototype was developed independently by Erma prior to the 1938 request from the German government for a new submachine gun which led to the MP38. The MP38 was a simplification of the MP36, as the MP40 was later a simplification of the MP38, the differences being in cost-saving alterations, especially the use of more pressed rather than machined parts and an improved safety.

The changes resulted from experiences with the several thousand MP38s in service since 1939, used during the invasion of Poland. The changes were incorporated into an intermediate version, theMP38/40, and then used in the initial MP40 production version. Just over 1 million would be made of all versions in the course of the war. The designer of the MP38/40 was Heinrich Vollmer.

The MP40 was often called the 'Schmeisser' by the Allies, after weapons designer Hugo Schmeisser. Coincidentally, this would translate to "chucker" or "thrower" in English. Although the name was evocative, Hugo Schmeisser himself did not design the MP40, but helped with the design of the MP41 which was effectively a MP40 with an old-fashioned wooden rifle stock.

Design

Both MP38 and MP40 submachine guns are open bolt blowback operated automatic arms. Fully automatic fire was the only setting, but the relatively low rate of fire allowed for single shots with controlled trigger pulls. The bolt features a telescoped return spring guide which serves as a pneumatic recoil buffer. The cocking handle was permanently attached to the bolt on early MP38s but on late production MP38s and MP40s, the bolt handle was made as a separate part. It also served as a safety by pushing the head of handle into a separate notches above the main opening which locked the bolt either in the cocked or forward position. The absence of this feature on early MP38s resulted in field expedients such as leather harnesses with a small loop, used to hold the bolt in forward position.

The receiver was originally machined steel but this was a time consuming and expensive process. This prompted the development of a simpler version which used pressed steel and electro-spot welding as much as possible. The MP38 also features longitudinal grooving on the receiver and bolt, as well as a circular opening on the magazine housing. These features were deleted on the M38/40 and MP40.
One idiosyncratic and visible feature on most MP38 and MP40 submachine guns was an aluminum or plastic rail under the barrel which was used as a support when firing over the side of open top armored personnel carriers such as the Sdkfz 251 half-track. A handguard was located between the magazine housing and pistol grip and was made from plastic. The barrel lacked any form of insulation, which often resulted in burns for the supporting hand if it strayed. It also had a folding stock, the first for a submachine gun, resulting in a shorter weapon when folded, but it was insufficiently durable for hard use and hand-to-hand combat.

Though the MP40 was generally reliable, a major weak point was its 32-round magazine, inherited by the British Sten, which copied the same design. Unlike the Thompson's double-column, dual-feed magazine, the MP38 and MP40 used a single-feed design. With the single-feed design, a double column of cartridges narrowed to a single-cartridge width at the feed end of the magazine.This meant that the 9 mm cartridges had to overcome increased friction in order to reach the chamber, as well as requiring a loading device to fill the magazine to capacity.
The design was also sensitive to dirt and debris. German soldiers soon learned to give the magazine a sharp slap to restore operation.The magazine was also frequently misused as a handhold, which could also cause a failure to feed when hand pressure on the magazine body caused the feed lips to move out of position. German soldiers were trained to grasp either the intended handhold on the underside of the weapon or the magazine housing with the supporting hand to avoid feed malfunctions.
Unlike the impression given by popular culture, MP40s were generally issued only to paratroopers and platoon and squad leaders; the majority of soldiers carried Karabiner 98k rifles. However, experience with Soviet tactics where entire units armed with submachine guns out-gunned their German counterparts in short range urban combat caused a shift in tactics, and by the end of the war it was being issued to entire assault platoons on a limited basis.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

PPSH-41

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 10:19 am


The PPSh-41 (Pistolet-Pulemyot Shpagina; Russian: Пистолет-пулемёт Шпагина; Shpagin Machine Pistol; nicknamed Pah-Pah-sha, Shpagin and Burp Gun) submachine gun was one of the most mass produced weapons of its type of World War II. It was designed by Georgi Shpagin, as an inexpensive alternative to the PPD-40, which was expensive and time consuming to build. The PPSh had a simple blow-back action, a box or drum magazine, and used the 7.62x25mm pistol round. It was made with metal stampings to ease production, and its chrome-lined chamber and bore helped to make the gun very low-maintenance in combat settings.
History

The impetus for the development of the PPSh came partly from the Winter War against Finland, where it was found that submachine guns were a highly effective tool for close-quarter fighting in forests or built-up urban areas. The weapon was developed in mid-1941 and was produced in a network of factories in Moscow, with high-level local Party members made directly responsible for production targets being met.

A few hundred weapons were produced in November 1941 and another 155,000 were produced over the next five months. By spring 1942, the PPSh factories were producing roughly 3,000 units a day.The PPSh-41 was classic example of a design adapted for mass production (other examples of such wartime design were the M3 Grease Gun, MP40 and the Sten). Its parts (excluding the barrel) could be produced by a relatively unskilled workforce with simple equipment available in an auto repair garage or tin shop, freeing up more skilled workers to other tasks. The PPSh-41 used 87 components compared to 95 for the PPD-40 and the PPSh could be manufactured with 7.3 machining hours compared with 13.7 hours for the PPD.

On the field, the PPSh was a durable, low-maintenance weapon that could fire 900 rpm. The weapon had a crude compensator to lessen muzzle climb and a hinged receiver which facilitated field-stripping and cleaning the bore in battle conditions.

Over 6 million of these weapons were produced by the end of the war. The Soviets would often equip whole regiments and even entire divisions with the weapon, giving them unmatched short-range firepower. Though 35-round curved box magazines were available from 1942, the average infantryman would keep a higher-capacity drum magazine as the initial load.The drum was a copy of the Finnish M31 Suomi magazine and held 71 rounds, but in practice misfeeding of the spring was likely to occur with more than 65 or so. The standard load was probably one drum and a number of box magazines, when box magazines were available.

Drawbacks

Some of the PPSh's drawbacks included the difficulty of reloading, the tendency of the drums to jam (solved by the box magazines) and the high risk of accidental discharge when dropped - the last being a fault common to all open bolt submachine gun designs.Despite these drawbacks, the PPSh-41 was still admired by Soviet soldiers for its low recoil, reliability, and lethality at close range.The PPSh fired the standard 7.62x25mm pistol round such as used in the TT-33 pistol.

The captured PPSh was in particular a favorite weapon of the Germans. Due to the similar dimensions of the Soviet 7.62x25mm and German 9x19mm Parabellum cartridges, the PPSh-41 was easily modified, with a 9 mm barrel and a magazine-well adapter to fire from a standard 32-round MP38/40 magazine. The Wehrmacht officially adopted the converted PPSh-41 as the MP41, unconverted PPSh-41s were designated MP717.

During the war the PPS-43, an even more simplified submachine gun, was introduced in Soviet service, although it didn't replace the PPSh-41 during the war.

Civilian version

The PPSh is a select fire weapon, and can be fired in a semi-automatic mode by toggling the position of a selector switch beneath the trigger guard, next to the trigger. Because fully automatic firearms are typically heavily regulated or prohibited for civilian use, a semi-automatic-only version has been manufactured by some companies, enabling civilians to own a replica of the weapon.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

SVT-40

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 10:24 am


The Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva, Obrazets 1940 goda (Tokarev Self-loading Rifle, Model of 1940, Russian: Самозарядная винтовка Токарева, образец 1940 года) is a Soviet semi-automatic rifle, which saw widespread service in World War II.
SVT-38

The design of the gun traces back to the early 1930s when Fedor Tokarev gave up his attempts to design a recoil-operated self-loading rifle, and concentrated on the gas operating principle. Stalin had a great interest in semi-automatic infantry rifles, and in 1935 a design competition was held, which was won by the rifle designed by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov, and was accepted into service the next year as the AVS36. However, problems with the AVS quickly manifested, and another competition was held, to which both Tokarev and Simonov submitted their improved designs. This time, Tokarev's rifle was chosen. The rifle was accepted for production under the designation SVT-38, and it was hoped to become the new standard issue rifle of the Red Army. Ambitious production plans were made: the production was planned to be increased to two million rifles per year by 1943. Production began in Tula at 1939.

The SVT-38 was a gas-operated weapon with a short-stroke, spring-loaded piston above the barrel and a tilting bolt, thus being one of the pioneers of this configuration which became widely used; there is some dispute about who exactly came up first with this operating principle, as the SVT's mechanism considerably resembles Dieudonne Saive's contemporary designs: Saive would eventually design the FN FAL, which employs the same operating principle as the SVT.

The SVT-38 was a very different rifle by Soviet and Russian standards of the day. Soviet small arms were generally of extremely simple and robust construction, designed for use by poorly educated and sometimes poorly equipped soldiers. The SVT-38 in contrast had been designed with weight savings in mind, in everything from its wooden stock to its metal receiver and action. Its gas-operated action was complex by Soviet standards, and ill-suited to handle the rigors of corrosive Soviet ammunition without frequent cleaning.

The SVT-38 was equipped with a bayonet and a 10-round detachable magazine. The receiver was open top, which enabled reloading of the magazine using five round Mosin-Nagant stripper clips. Normally, three magazines were issued with each rifle. Fairly advanced features for its time were the adjustable gas system, muzzle brake and scope rails milled into the receiver. The sniper variant had an additional locking notch for a see-through scope mount. The sniper version was equipped with a 3.5X PU scope, which was slightly shorter than the otherwise similar scope used on Mosin-Nagant sniper variants.

Towards the SVT-40

The SVT-38 saw its combat debut in the Winter War. The initial reaction of the troops to this new weapon was negative. Among the issues were that they felt the rifle was too long and cumbersome, difficult to maintain, and the magazines had a tendency to fall off. Some of these problems can be attributed to insufficient training and incorrect maintenance, but others were obviously the result of design flaws. Production of the SVT-38 was terminated in April 1940 after some 150,000 examples were manufactured. Subsequently an improved design, designated the SVT-40, entered production. It was a more refined, lighter design incorporating a modified magazine release. The handguard was now single-piece and the cleaning rod was housed under the barrel. Other changes were made in an effort to simplify manufacture. Production of this improved weapon began in July 1940 at Tula, and later at factories in Ishevsk and Kovrov. At the same time, production of the Mosin-Nagant M91/30 rifle was discontinued. As these factories already had experience manufacturing the SVT-38, production geared up quickly and an estimated 70,000 SVT-40s were produced in 1940.

By the time of German invasion in June 1941, the SVT-40 was already in widespread use in the Red Army. In a Soviet infantry division's TO&E, one-third of rifles were supposed to be SVTs, although in practice this was seldom achieved. The first months of the war were disastrous for the Soviet Union, and hundreds of thousands of these rifles were lost. To make up for this enormous amount of lost weaponry, production of the Mosin-Nagant rifles was reintroduced. In contrast, the SVT was more difficult to manufacture, and troops with only rudimentary training had difficulty maintaining it. In addition, submachine guns like the PPSh-41 had proven their value as simple and cheap, but effective weapons to supplement infantry firepower. This all led to a gradual decline in SVT production. However, if German soldiers, with their initial lack of an amiable semi-automatic rifle, captured this weapon, they would usually prefer to use this instead of their own weapons. In 1941, over a million SVTs were produced, but in 1942 Ishevsk arsenal was ordered to cease SVT production and switch back to the Mosin-Nagant 91/30. Only 264,000 SVTs were manufactured in 1942 and production continued to diminish until the order to cease production was finally given in January 1945. Total production of the SVT-38/40 was probably around 1.6 million rifles, of which about 55,000 were the SVT-40 sniper variant.

In service, it was noted that the SVTs frequently suffered from vertical shot dispersion. For a sniper rifle, this was unacceptable and production of the specialised sniper variant of the SVT was terminated in 1942. At the same time, the milling of scope rails in the receivers of standard SVT rifles was discontinued. Other production changes included a new, simpler muzzle brake design. To supplement the Red Army's shortage of machineguns, a version capable of automatic fire was produced in 1943, designated the AVT-40. It was externally similar to the SVT, but its safety also acted as a fire selector. A larger 15 or 20 round capacity magazine was reportedly designed for use with the AVT, but this is unconfirmed and there are no known examples. The AVT featured a slightly stouter stock; surplus AVT stocks were later used on refurbished SVTs. In service, the AVT proved to be a disappointment - automatic fire was largely uncontrollable, and the rifles often suffered breakages under the increased strain. The use of the AVT's automatic fire mode was subsequently prohibited, and production of the AVT was relatively brief. A shorter carbine version (sometimes called SKT-40) was designed in 1940 and reportedly produced in small numbers, but again this is somewhat disputed. As a field modification, standard SVT's were sometimes modified into a carbine configuration, with varying degrees of success and work quality. A prototype version chambered for the new, shorter M1943 round was developed, but not accepted for production.

SVT outside of Soviet Union

The first country outside the Soviet Union to employ the SVT was Finland, which captured some 4,000 SVT-38s during the Winter War, and over 15,000 SVTs during the Continuation War. The SVT saw extensive use in Finnish hands, though malfunctions and breakages were common due to different Finnish ammunition and often an incorrectly adjusted gas recoil system. Germany and other Axis countries captured hundreds of thousands of SVTs during the Great Patriotic War. As the Germans were short of self-loading rifles themselves, the SVT (designated as SIG.259(r) by the Wehrmacht) saw widespread use in German hands against their former owners. The Germans even issued their own operating manual for the SVT.

Legacy

After the war, SVTs were mostly withdrawn from service and refurbished in arsenals and then stored. In Soviet service, new weapons like the SKS and the AK-47 quickly made the SVT an obsolete rifle, and the weapon was generally out of service by 1955. Only a few SVTs were exported to Soviet allies and clients. Reportedly, some SVTs were used by Cuban revolutionaries in the 1950s. The Finnish Army retired the SVT in 1958, and about 7,500 rifles were sold to the US civilian market through Interarms. This marked the end of SVTs in regular service. In the Soviet Union, SVTs were kept in storage until the 1990s, when many rifles were sold abroad along with several other Russian surplus military weapons. Nowadays, the SVT is fairly widely available for collectors and enthusiasts, and highly sought after due to the inexpensive nature of the 7.62 x 54 mm R ammunition it uses, favorable aesthetics, and being well regarded as a fun and historic rifle to shoot.

Despite its relatively brief service career, the SVT was a very prolific weapon in the Eastern Front of World War II, and it had considerable impact on European battle rifle designs during and immediately after the war. Weapons like the SKS, Swedish AG-42 and the German G-43 show obvious influence by the SVT. The FN-FAL and its ancestor FN-49 employ the same locking mechanism and operating principle as the SVT, although as mentioned above, it is unclear whether they were actually influenced by the SVT. As a service weapon, the SVT had its problems, but on the other hand, so did other contemporary semi-automatic rifles. The main downfall of the SVT in combat was not so much these disadvantages, but rather that with immense demand for arms, Soviet factories could produce other, simpler, designs in far greater quantities in the same amount of time it took to produce a SVT rifle.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

PPS43

Post  .:A:.Nighty on Sun Jan 27, 2008 10:27 am


The PPS is a family of Soviet 7.62 mm submachine guns, designed in two main variants - the PPS-42 and PPS-43 by A. I. Sudaev as a personal defense weapon for reconnaissance units, vehicle crews and service personnel.

Development

The PPS-42 was created as a result of a Red Army requirement for a compact and lightweight weapon that would provide similar accuracy (with a reduced rate of fire) using more cost-effective production methods than the standard Soviet 7.62 mm PPSh-41 submachine gun being issued at the time. During the design phase, emphasis was placed on simplifying the production process and as a result sheet-steel stamping was chosen to manufacture most of the firearm's assemblies. Prototypes were evaluated successfully in the spring of 1942, after which the firearm was accepted into service later that year as the PPS (Pistolet Pulemyot Sudayeva, Russian: ППС - Пистолет-пулемёт Судаева) model 1942. An initial pre-production run began that same year during the Siege of Leningrad, however mass production did not commence until early 1943 (over 45,000 firearms were eventually produced before being replaced by the improved PPS-43).

Design details

The PPS-42 is an automatic blowback-operated firearm, and is fired from an open bolt. It is chambered in the 7.62x25mm Tokarev M1930 pistol cartridge. The PPS features a striker firing mechanism (that is located inside the bolt assembly and contains a firing pin that is directly connected to the weapon's recoil spring), trigger assembly (that enables fully automatic fire only) and an external, lever-type safety that prevents accidental firing. In its "safe" position (the safety lever is engaged by sliding it forward of the trigger guard) both the bolt and trigger are disabled. The bolt also contains a spring-loaded extractor, which pulls the empty case out of the chamber and passes it to the fixed ejector. The weapon is fed from an arch-shaped 35-round box magazine that is interchangeable with box magazines used with the PPSh-41, however the magazine well could not accept the 71 round drum magazines from the PPSh-41.

The submachine gun's rifled barrel (has right-hand 4 grooves) is mounted in a perforated heat shield and has a muzzle brake, which also serves as a compensator reducing muzzle rise during rapid fire. The PPS is also equipped with: open-type iron sights (consisting of a fixed, blade foresight and a flip rear sight with settings for firing at 100 and 200 m), a folding metal stock that folds up and over the receiver frame and a pistol grip (the magazine well is intended to be used as the foregrip). Supplied with the PPS are: two magazine pouches, an oil bottle, bore brush and sling.

Towards the middle of 1943 the modernized PPS-43 entered production; once again efforts were made to reduce the amount of machinery required to produce the weapon. The ventilated hand guard was integrated into the receiver housing and is now a single component, both the barrel and stock were shortened, the stock's locking mechanism was simplified, the case ejector was moved to the rear of the recoil spring guide rod and the magazine well angle was increased in the receiver to improve feeding reliability.

Variants

Outside the Soviet Union the PPS was also license-produced in Poland (from 1948) and the People's Republic of China (Type 43). Several variants were built based on the PPS-43 including: a training version built in Poland, designed to use the 5.6 mm Long Rifle (.22LR) rimfire cartridge (fed from standard PPS-43 magazines but using aluminum reduction inserts) and the Finnish 9 mm M/44 submachine gun, converted to use the 9x19mm Parabellum pistol round and box magazines (used in the Carl Gustav SMG) or drum magazines (from the Suomi M/31). The PPS-43 was adopted by the armed forces of several countries of the former Warsaw Pact as well as its many African and Asian allies.

In the early 1950's Poland developed a modified version of the PPS-43, known as the PPS wz. 1943/1952 that replaced the folding wire stock with a fixed wood type butt. This was mounted to the receiver end plate using two adapters. The bolt release button received minor amendments to accommodate the change. The buttstock has a compartment carved inside of it that contains a standard cleaning kit, the side of the butt has a through used as a sling attachment point.
avatar
.:A:.Nighty
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 113
Age : 24
Location : Zagreb,Croatia
Registration date : 2008-01-20

View user profile http://anarchy-clan.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

Bren lmg

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Feb 09, 2008 4:27 pm


The Bren (from Brno, the Czechoslovak city of design, and Enfield, the location of the British Royal Small Arms Factory), usually called the Bren Gun, was a series of light machine guns adopted by Britain in the 1930s and used in various roles until 1991. While it is best known for its role as the British and Commonwealth forces' primary infantry light machine gun (LMG) in World War II, it was also used in the Korean War and saw service throughout the later half of the 20th century including the Falklands War and the 1991 Gulf War.

The Bren was a modified version of a Czechoslovak-designed light machine gun, the ZB vz.26, which British Army officials had tested during a firearms service competition in the 1930s. The later Bren featured a distinctive curved box magazine, conical flash hider and quick change barrel. In the 1950s the Bren was rebarrelled to accept the 7.62x51mm NATO cartridge. Although fitted with a bipod, it could also be mounted on a tripod or vehicle-mounted.

The Bren was replaced as the section LMG by the L7 General purpose machine gun (GPMG), a heavier belt-fed weapon. This was in turn supplemented in the 1980s by the L86 Light Support Weapon firing the 5.56x45mm NATO round, leaving the Bren only in use on some vehicles.

As of November 2007, the Bren is still manufactured by Indian Ordnance Factories as the "Gun, Machine 7.62mm 1B".[1
[edit] Development
The British Army adopted it in 1935 following extensive trials of the Czechoslovak ZB vz.26 light machine gun which was manufactured in Brno, although the ZB vz. 26 was not actually submitted for the trials, a slightly modified model was submitted; the ZB vz. 27. A licence to manufacture was sought and the Czech design was modified to British requirements. The major changes were in the magazine and barrel. The magazine was curved in order to feed the rimmed .303 British cartridge, a change from the various rimless Mauser-design cartridges used to date, such as the 7.92 mm Mauser round. These modifications were categorised in various numbered designations, ZB vz. 27, ZB vz. 30, ZB vz. 32, and finally the ZB vz. 33, which became the Bren.

Other weapons that were submitted for the trials were: the Madsen, Vickers-Berthier, Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR), and the Neuhausen KE7. The Vickers-Berthier was later adopted by the Indian Army and also saw extensive service in WWII.

A gas-operated weapon, the Bren used the same .303 ammunition as the standard British rifle, the Lee-Enfield, firing at a rate of between 480 and 540 rounds per minute (rpm), depending on model. Each gun came with a spare barrel that could be quickly changed when the barrel became hot during sustained fire, though later guns featured a chrome-lined barrel which reduced the need for a spare. The Bren was magazine-fed, which slowed its rate of fire and required more frequent reloading than British belt-fed machine guns such as the larger .303 Vickers machine gun. However, the slower rate of fire prevented more rapid overheating of the Bren's air-cooled barrel, and the Bren was several pounds lighter than belt-fed machine guns. Because it was more easily portable, it could be fired on the move and from standing positions. The magazines also prevented the ammunition from getting dirty, which was more of a problem with the Vickers with its 250-round canvas belts
In general, the Bren was considered a reliable and effective light machine gun, though in North Africa it was reported to jam regularly unless kept very clean and free of sand.[2]

Its 30-round magazine was in practice usually filled with only 28 or 29 rounds to prevent jams and avoid wearing out the magazine spring, something that was common to other firearms as well. Care needed to be taken with magazine loading to ensure that the .303 cartridge rims did not overlap the wrong way, causing a jam. The rounds had to be loaded the correct way, each round ahead of the previous round. There was also a 100-round drum magazine available for the Bren used in the anti-aircraft role.

The Bren was officially operated by a two man crew: a gunner to fire and carry the Bren, and a reloader to reload the gun and replace the barrel when it overheated (the carrying handle in front of the magazine was used to rotate the barrel to unlock it so it could be replaced). The reloader carried extra ammunition and barrels. During wartime, however, the two man crew was abandoned and the weapon was commonly operated by one man, the gunner (as depicted in the picture to the right.)

The Bren had an effective range of around 600 yards when fired from a prone position with a supported bipod. Initial versions of the weapon were sometimes considered too accurate because the cone or pattern of fire was extremely concentrated, resulting in multiple hits on one or two enemies, with other enemy soldiers going untouched. More than a few soldiers expressed a preference for worn-out barrels in order to spread the cone of fire among several targets. Later versions of the Bren addressed this issue by providing a wider cone of fire.[3]

For a light machine gun of the interwar and early WWII era the Bren was about average in weight. On long marches in non-operational areas it was often partially disassembled and its parts carried by two soldiers. Writing about his experiences in the infantry during the Burma campaign,[4] the author George MacDonald Fraser stated that one Bren gun was issued to each eight man section. One soldier would be the gunner and another would be his 'number two', who would carry extra ammunition and the spare barrel and change magazines in combat. The top-mounted magazine vibrated and moved during fire, making the weapon more visible in combat, and many Bren gunners used paint or improvised canvas covers to disguise the prominent magazine.[5]

Realising the need for additional section-level firepower, the British Army endeavoured to issue the Bren in great numbers, with a stated goal of one Bren to every four private soldiers.[6]

On occasion, a Bren gunner would use his weapon on the move supported by a sling, much like an automatic rifle, though generally the Bren was fired from the prone position using the attached bipod.[citation needed] Each British soldier's equipment normally included two magazines for his section's Bren gun, and every man would be trained to fire the Bren in case of an emergency, though these soldiers did not receive a Bren proficiency badge.[citation needed]

The Bren was also used on many vehicles as well, including Universal Carriers to which it gave the alternative name "Bren Gun Carrier", on tanks, and armoured cars. However, on tanks it was not used in the co-axial role but on a pintle mount (rarely used). The co-axial requirement was filled by the Vickers or the BESA, the latter being another Czech machine gun design adopted by the British.

It was popular with British troops who respected the Bren for its reliability and combat effectiveness; few would have swapped it for anything else. Many considered it the best light machine gun ever made. The quality of the materials used would often ensure minimal jamming. When the gun did jam or had some foreign object stuck in it, the operator could adjust the four-position gas regulator to feed more gas to the piston increasing the power to operate the mechanism. It was even said that all problems with the Bren could simply be cleared by hitting the gun, turning the gauge, or doing both. Note that the barrel needed to be unlocked and slid forward slightly to allow the regulator to be turned.

Ironically, the Bren's direct ancestor, the Czechoslovak ZB vz. 26, was also used in WWII by German forces, including units of the Waffen SS. Many 7.92 mm ZB light machine guns were shipped to China where they were employed first against the Japanese in WWII, and later against UN forces in Korea, including British and Commonwealth units. Some ex-Chinese Czech ZB weapons were also in use in the early stages of the Vietnam conflict.

The production of a 7.92 mm round model for the Far East was made by Inglis of Canada.

With the British Army's adoption of the 7.62 mm NATO cartridge, the Bren was re-designed to 7.62 mm calibre, fitted with a new barrel and magazine, and continued in service. It was redesignated as the L4 Light Machine Gun and continued in British Army service into the 1990s. The change from a rimmed to rimless cartridge and nearly-straight magazine improved feeding considerably, and allowed use of 20-round magazines from the 7.62 mm L1A1 SLR (Self Loading Rifle). The conical flash hider was also lost in the transition, being replaced by the slotted type similar to that of the contemporary L1 rifle and L7 General Purpose Machine Gun.

The magazine from the 7.62 mm version of the L4 also fitted the L1A1 however the magazine spring was not sufficient to the task of providing enough upward pressure to feed rounds correctly.

Completion of the move to a 5.56 mm NATO cartridge led to the Bren/L4 being removed from the list of approved weapons and then withdrawn from service. The fact that Bren guns remained in service for so many years with so many different countries in so many wars says much about the quality of the basic design.

The Mark III Bren remains in limited use with the Army Reserve of the Irish Defence Forces, although in most units it has been replaced by the 7.62mm FN MAG (GPMG). The weapon was popular with the soldiers who fired it (known as Brenners) as it was light, durable and had a reputation for accuracy. The most notable use of the Bren by Irish forces was in the Congo during the 1960s, when the Bren was the regular army's standard section automatic weapon.
RSAF Enfield, UK: 400 per month.
1943: 1,000 per week.
John Inglis and Company, Canada: A Contract was signed with the British and Canadian governments in March 1938 to supply 5,000 Bren machine guns to Great Britain and 7,000 Bren machine guns to Canada. Both countries shared the capital costs of bringing in this new production facility. Production started in 1940; and by 1943 John Inglis and Company was producing 60% of the world output of Bren machine guns.
Long Branch, Canada.
Ishapore, India.
Lithgow, Australia.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

ZASTAVA LK M93

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Feb 09, 2008 4:42 pm


ZASTAVA LK M93



Sporting rifle M93 "BLACK ARROW" cal. 50 Browning is made on the basis of Mauser system, which was, during its one hundred years long combat history, proven to be the most accurate and most reliable bolt-action system.



The most important custom features:

Excellent balance

Stock with two spring buffers

Muzzle brake facilitating shooting (decreasing recoil by 62%)

Stock and forehand made of polymer, reinforced with glass fibers

Adjustable folding bipod – able to fit the size of the cover behind which the rifle is placed

Locking – Mauser system

Bolt guided along the whole length of its movement in the receiver

Heavy barrel for accurate and precise path of fired projectile of large energetic potential

Barrels are made by technology used on heavy machine gun barrels of the same caliber, which have a ballistic life of more than 5000 rounds.
Manner of external making of the barrel provides quicker cooling.
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

AK47

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Feb 09, 2008 4:50 pm


The AK-47 (short for Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1947 года; Kalashnikov model automatic rifle of 1947) is a gas operated assault rifle which was used in most Eastern bloc countries during the Cold War.

Adopted and standardized in 1947, it was designed by Mikhail Kalashnikov and originally produced by Soviet manufacturer Izhevsk Mechanical Works.[3] Compared with most auto-loading rifles of World War II, the AK-47 is compact, of comparable range, moderate power, and capable of selective fire. It was one of the first true assault rifles and, due to its durability and ease of use, remains the most widely used assault rifle. More AK-type rifles have been produced than any other assault rifle type
During World War II, the Germans developed the assault rifle concept, based upon research that showed that most firefights happen at close range, within 300 meters. The power and range of contemporary rifle cartridges was excessive for most small arms firefights. As a result, armies sought a cartridge and rifle combining submachine gun features (large-capacity magazine, selective-fire) with an intermediate-power cartridge effective to 300 meters. To reduce manufacturing costs, the 7.92x57mm Mauser cartridge case was shortened, the result of which was the lighter 7.92x33mm Kurz (German: Short).

The resultant rifle, the Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44) was not the first with these features; its predecessors were the Italian Cei-Rigotti and the Russian Fedorov Avtomat design rifles. The Germans, however, were the first to produce and field sufficient numbers of this assault rifle to properly evaluate its combat utility. Towards the end of the war, they fielded the weapon against the Soviets; the experience deeply influenced Soviet military doctrine in the post-war years.

According to Mikhail Kalashnikov, he began imagining his assault rifle while in hospital after being wounded in the Battle of Bryansk.[4] A frequent topic of conversation among the patients was the lack of an automatic rifle to match those of the Germans. After tinkering with designs, he entered a competition that had been launched for a new weapon that would take the 7.62x41mm cartridge developed by Elisarov and Semin in 1943 (the 7.62x41mm cartridge predated the current 7.62x39mm). A particular requirement of the competition was the reliability of the firearm in the muddy, wet, and frozen conditions of the Soviet frontline. Influenced by the simplicity of the design of Aleksei Sudaev's PPS-43 submachine gun, Kalashnikov produced his "Mikhtim" (derived from his first name and patronymic) and won the competition after it was dragged through mud, sand, and dust and was still able to fire without jamming. The "Mikhtim" was the prototype for the development of a family of firearms which culminated in the AK-47 in 1947.[5]
Mikhail Kalashnikov denies his assault rifle was based on the German StG44 assault rifle despite circumstantial evidence to the contrary. The AK-47 is best described as a hybrid of previous rifle technology innovations: the double locking lugs and unlocking raceway of the M1 Garand/M1 carbine, [6] the trigger and safety mechanism of the John Browning designed Remington Model 8 rifle,[7] and the gas system and layout of the StG44. The main advantages of the Kalashnikov rifle are simple design and adaptation to mass production; it is a fusion of the best the Garand, Browning, and StG44 had to offer. Kalashnikov's team had access to all of these weapons and had no need to reinvent the wheel
There were many difficulties during the initial phase of production. The first production models had stamped sheet metal receivers. Difficulties were encountered in welding the guide and ejector rails, causing high rejection rates.[9] Instead of halting production, a heavy machined receiver was substituted for the sheet metal receiver.[10] This was a more costly process, but the use of machined receivers accelerated production as tooling and labor for the earlier Mosin-Nagant rifle's machined receiver were easily adapted. Partly because of these problems, the Soviets were not able to distribute large numbers of the new rifle to soldiers until 1956. During this time, production of the interim SKS rifle continued.[11]

Once manufacturing difficulties had been overcome, a redesigned version designated the AKM (M for modernized or upgraded—in Russian: Автомат Калашникова Модернизированный Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernizirovanniy) was introduced in 1959.[12] This new model used a stamped sheet metal receiver and featured a slanted muzzle brake on the end of the barrel to compensate for muzzle rise under recoil. In addition, a hammer retarder was added to prevent the weapon from firing out of battery (without the bolt being fully closed), during rapid or automatic fire.[13] This is also sometimes referred to as a "cyclic rate reducer", or simply "rate reducer", as it also has the effect of reducing the number of rounds fired per minute during automatic fire. It was also lighter than the previous model, at roughly one-third lighter.[14] Both licensed and unlicensed production of the Kalashnikov weapons abroad were almost exclusively of the AKM variant, partially due to the much easier production of the stamped receiver. This model is the most commonly encountered, having been produced in much greater quantities. All rifles based on the Kalashnikov design are frequently referred to as AK-47s in the West, although this is only correct when applied to rifles based on the original 3 receiver types.[15] In most former Eastern Bloc countries, the weapon is known simply as the "Kalashnikov". The photo above at right illustrates the differences between the Type 2 milled receiver and the Type 4 stamped, including the use of rivets rather than welds on the stamped receiver, as well as the placement of a small dimple above the magazine well for stabilization of the magazine.

In 1978, the Soviet Union began replacing their AK-47 and AKM rifles with a newer design, the AK-74. This new rifle and cartridge had only started being exported to eastern European nations when the Soviet Union collapsed, drastically slowing production of this and other weapons of the former Soviet bloc.The AK is simple, inexpensive to manufacture and easy to clean and maintain. Its ruggedness and reliability are legendary.[16][17] The large gas piston, generous clearances between moving parts, and tapered cartridge case design allow the gun to endure large amounts of foreign matter and fouling without failing to cycle. This reliability comes at the cost of accuracy, as the looser tolerances do not allow the precision and consistency that are required of more accurate firearms. Reflecting Soviet infantry doctrine of its time, the rifle is meant to be part of massed infantry fire, not long range engagements.

The notched rear tangent iron sight is adjustable, and is calibrated in hundreds of meters. The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the field. Windage adjustment is done by the armory before issue. The battle setting places the round within a few centimeters above or below the point of aim out to about 250 meters (275 yd). This "point-blank range" setting allows the shooter to fire the gun at any close target without adjusting the sights. Longer settings are intended for area suppression. These settings mirror the Mosin-Nagant and SKS rifles which the AK-47 replaced. This eased transition and simplified training.

The prototype of the AK-47, the AK-46, had a separate fire selector and safety.[18] These were later combined in the production version to simplify the design. The fire selector acts as a dust cover for the ejection port when placed on safe. This makes it easier to carry the AK-47 through difficult terrain because the operator only has to safe the firearm, and does not have to remember to close another latch to protect the operating mechanism.

The bore and chamber, as well as the gas piston and the interior of the gas cylinder, are generally chromium-plated. This plating dramatically increases the life of these parts by resisting corrosion and wear. This is particularly important, as most military-production ammunition during the 20th century contained corrosive mercuric salts in the primers, which mandated frequent and thorough cleaning in order to prevent damage. Chrome plating of critical parts is now common on many modern military weapons.To fire, the operator inserts a loaded magazine, moves the selector lever to the lowest position, pulls back and releases the charging handle, aims, and then pulls the trigger. In this setting, the firearm fires only once (semi-automatic), requiring the trigger to be released and depressed again for the next shot. With the selector in the middle position (full-automatic), the rifle continues to fire, automatically cycling fresh rounds into the chamber, until the magazine is exhausted or pressure is released from the trigger. As each bullet travels through the barrel, a portion of the gases expanding behind it is diverted into the gas tube above the barrel, where it impacts the gas piston. The piston, in turn, is driven backward, pushing the bolt carrier, which causes the bolt to move backwards, ejecting the spent round, and chambering a new round when the recoil spring pushes it back
Dismantling the rifle involves the operator depressing the magazine catch and removing the magazine. The charging handle is pulled to the rear and the operator inspects the chamber to verify the weapon is unloaded. The operator presses forward on the retainer button at the rear of the receiver cover while simultaneously lifting up on the rear of the cover to remove it. The operator then pushes the spring assembly forward and lifts it from its raceway, withdrawing it out of the bolt carrier and to the rear. The operator must then pull the carrier assembly all the way to the rear, lift it, and then pull it away. The operator removes the bolt by pushing it to the rear of the bolt carrier; rotating the bolt so the camming lug clears the raceway on the underside of the bolt carrier and then pulls it forward and free. When cleaning, the operator will pay special attention to the barrel, bolt face, and gas piston, then oil lightly and reassembleThe standard AK-47 or AKM fires a 7.62x39mm round with a muzzle velocity of 710 metres per second (2,329 ft/s). Muzzle energy is 2,010 joules (1,467 ft·lbf). Cartridge case length is 38.6 millimetres (1.5 in), weight is 18.21 grams (281.0 gr). Projectile weight is normally 8 grams (123 gr). The AK-47 and AKM, with the 7.62x39mm cartridge, have a maximum effective range of around 300–400 meters
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

M4A1

Post  .:A:.Mist on Sat Feb 09, 2008 4:56 pm


The M4 Carbine is a family of firearms tracing its lineage back to earlier carbine versions of the M16, all based on the original AR-15 made by ArmaLite. It is a shorter and lighter version of the M16A2 assault rifle, achieving 80% parts commonality with the M16A2. The M4 has selective fire options including semi-automatic and three-round burst (like the M16A2), while the M4A1 has a "full auto" option in place of the three-round burst.The M4 and variants fire 5.56x45mm NATO ammunition and are gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed, selective fire firearms with a 4-position telescoping stock. Original M4 models had a flat-ended telescoping stock, but newer models are now equipped with a redesigned telescoping stock that is slightly larger and the end has a curvature
As with many carbines, the M4 is handy and more convenient to carry than a full-length rifle. While this makes it a candidate for non-infantry troops (vehicle crews, clerks and staff officers), it also makes it ideal for close quarters combat (CQC), and airborne and special operations. It has been adopted by United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is the preferred weapon of the U.S. Army Special Forces. M4 have also been fielded by the Australian Special Air Service Regiment. Malaysia purchased M4 Carbine service rifles to replace the Steyr AUG service rifles in its armed forces in 2006 and will be manufactured in Malaysia under license by Colt Firearms[citation needed].

The M4 was developed and produced for the United States government by Colt Firearms, which has an exclusive contract to produce the M4 family of weapons through 2009; however, a number of other manufacturers offer M4-like firearms. The M4, along with the M16A4, has mostly replaced M16 and M16A2 firearms; the U.S. Air Force, for example, plans to transition completely to the M4 Carbine. The M4 has also replaced the M3A1 submachine gun that remained in service (mostly with tank crews). The M4 is similar to much earlier compact M16 versions, such as the 1960s-era XM177 family.

The United States Marine Corps has ordered its officers (up to the rank of lieutenant colonel) and SNCOs to carry the M4A1 carbine variant instead of the M9 Beretta pistol. This is in recognition that pistols are largely useless in current conflicts, and is in line with the Marine Corps phrase, "Every Marine a rifleman." United States Navy corpsmen will also be issued M4A1s instead of the M9, according to the
For more details on M4 Carbine variants, see AR-15 variants
Except for the very first delivery order, all U.S. military-issue M4 and M4A1 possess a flat-top NATO M1913-specification (Picatinny) rail on top of the receiver for attachment of optical sights and other aiming devices — Trijicon TA01 and TA31 Advanced Combat Optical Gunsights (ACOG) and Aimpoint M68 Close Combat Optic (M68 CCO) being the favorite choices — and a detachable rail-mounted carrying handle. The current government standards are the Colt Model 920 (M4) and 921 (M4A1).
The M4A1 carbine is a variant of the basic M4 carbine intended for special operations use. The M4A1 can be found in use by many U.S. military units, including the Delta Force, U.S. Navy SEALs, U.S. Air Force Pararescue and Combat Controller Special Tactics Teams, U.S. Army Rangers, and the U.S. Marine Corps' Radio Reconnaissance Platoons and Force Reconnaissance companies, and most Joint Special Operations Command multi-service combat teams. The M4A1 Carbine is specially favored by counter-terrorist and special operations units for close quarters combat because of the carbine's compactness and firepower. These features are also very useful in urban warfare. Although the M4 does not have as great of an effective range as the longer M16, many military analysts consider engagement with a non-specialized small arm above a range of 300 meters to be unnecessary. It is effective at ranges of 150 meters or less. It has a maximum effective range of about 460 meters.

In the last few years, M4A1 carbines have been refit or received straight from factory with barrels with a thicker profile under the handguard. This is for a variety of reasons such as heat dissipation during full-auto and accuracy as a byproduct of barrel weight. These heavier barrel weapons are also fitted with a heavier buffer known as the H2. Out of three sliding weights inside the buffer, the H2 possesses two tungsten weights and one steel weight, versus the standard H buffer, which uses one tungsten weight and two steel weights. These weapons, known by Colt as the Model 921HB (for Heavy Barrel), have also been designated M4A1, and as far as the government is concerned the M4A1 represents both the 921 and 921HB.
The M4/M4A1 5.56 mm Carbine is a gas-operated, air-cooled, magazine-fed, selective fire, shoulder-fired weapon with a telescoping stock. A shortened variant of the M16A2 rifle with a 14.5 in (368 mm)barrel, the M4 provides the individual soldier operating in close quarters the capability to engage targets at extended range with accurate, lethal fire. The original M4 Carbine has semi-automatic and three-round burst fire modes, while the M4A1 has "semi" and "full auto", with no three-round burst. The M4 Carbine achieves over 80% commonality with the M16A2 rifle and was intended to replace the .45 ACP M3 submachine guns and selected M9 pistols and M16 rifle series with most Army units. (This plan was thought to be changed with the development of the XM29 OICW and the XM8 carbine. However, both projects were cancelled.) The M4 Carbine is also capable of mounting the M203 grenade launcher.

Some features of the M4 and M4A1 compared to a full-length M16-series rifle include:

Compact size
Shorter barrel 14.5 in (368 mm)
Telescoping buttstock
Increased rate of fire
An April 2002 presentation by the Natick Soldier Center presented by LTC Charlie Dean and SFC Sam Newland reported on lessons learned from M4 use in Afghanistan (such as use during Operation Anaconda):

34% of soldiers reported that their M4's handguards rattle and become excessively hot when firing.
15% reported that they had trouble zeroing the M68 reflex sight.
35% added barber brushes and 24% added dental picks to their cleaning kits.
Soldiers reported the following malfunctions:
20% reported double-feeding.
15% reported feeding jams.
13% reported that feeding problems were due to magazines.
89% of soldiers reported confidence in the weapon.
20% were dissatisfied with its ease of maintenance.
Soldiers requested the following changes:

55% requested the firearm be made lighter
20% requested a larger magazine
In the fall of 2007, four carbines were tested in "sandstorm conditions" at Aberdeen Proving Ground. The M4s were pitted against the Heckler & Koch XM8 rifle, FNH USA’s SOF Combat Assault Rifle (SCAR) and the Heckler & Koch HK416. Ten of each type of rifle were used to fire 6,000 rounds each, for a total of 60,000 rounds per rifle type.[3] The M4 suffered significantly more stoppages than its competitors: 882 stoppages, 19 requiring an armorer to fix. In comparison, the most reliable weapon, the XM8, had 116 minor stoppages and 11 major ones. It was followed by the FN SCAR with 226 stoppages, and the HK416 with 233.[4][5] The army now has plans to improve upon the M4. A new cold hammer forge barrel and new more reliable magazines have been their primary focus. The heavier barrel has a longer life and the magazines will reduce the stoppages. The army has stated that if all goes well during testing of the new magazines, they could be ready for combat by spring. The Army realized the need for new magazines when they found that 239 of the 882 failures were the result of problems in the magazine.[6]

Colt has held a US trademark on the word "M4"[7] Many manufacturers produce firearms that come very close in terms of appearance to a military M4, sometimes colloquially referred to as an "M4-gery" (pronounced ĕm'fôr jə-rē, a portmanteau of "M4" and "forgery"). Colt has maintained that it retains sole rights to the M4 name and design. Other manufacturers had long maintained that Colt had been overstating their rights — "M4" has now become more of a generic term for a shortened M16/AR-15. In April 2004, Colt filed a lawsuit against Heckler & Koch and Bushmaster Firearms, claiming acts of trademark infringement, trade dress infringement, trademark dilution, false designation of origin, false advertising, patent infringement, unfair competition, and deceptive trade practices. Heckler & Koch later settled out of court, changing one product's name from "HK M4" to "HK416". However, on December 8th, 2005, a District court judge in Maine granted a summary judgment in favor of Bushmaster Firearms, dismissing all of Colt's claims except for false advertising. On the latter claim, Colt could not recover monetary damages. More importantly, the court ruled that "M4" was now a generic name, and that Colt's trademark should be revoked
avatar
.:A:.Mist
Boss
Boss

Male Number of posts : 70
Age : 26
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-12

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: Weapons

Post  .:A:.Diavollo on Tue Feb 19, 2008 2:02 pm

affraid
avatar
.:A:.Diavollo
Vice boss
Vice boss

Male Number of posts : 127
Age : 23
Location : Serbia
Registration date : 2007-12-11

View user profile http://anarchy.top-forum.net

Back to top Go down

Re: Weapons

Post  Sponsored content


Sponsored content


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum